COVID-19 leaves patients more vulnerable to diabetes and heart disease

(photo: Sergei Gapon)

Increasingly, COVID is recognized as a multisystemic condition, which can cause whole-body disease, likely triggering inflammatory pathways. Now, a study from King’s College London, UK, shows that patients face a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes especially in the three months after infection by Sars-CoV-2. The article, led by Emma Rezel-Potts and Martin Gulliford, was published in the journal Plos Medicine.

In the new study, researchers investigated whether a sample of COVID-19 patients developed diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the year following infection at higher rates than subjects who never had the disease triggered by the new coronavirus. They analyzed anonymous medical records of more than 428,000 Britons who contracted SARS-CoV-2 and an equal number of controls (who were not infected), matched for age and sex.

The analysis showed that COVID-19 patients had 81% more diagnoses of diabetes in the first four weeks after contracting the virus and that the risk remained elevated at 27% for up to three months after infection. The disease has also been associated with a six-fold increase in cardiovascular diagnoses in general, mainly due to the development of pulmonary embolism (blood clots in the lungs) and irregular heartbeat.

Also read: COVID: increase risk factors for diabetes in children and adolescents

The risk of a new diagnosis of heart disease began to decrease five weeks after infection and returned to normal within 12 weeks to a year. Thus, the researchers conclude that infection is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes, but there does not appear to be a long-term increase in the incidence of these conditions for infected individuals.

Based on these findings, they recommend that physicians advise those recovering from the disease to reduce their risk of these conditions through a healthy diet and exercise. “The information provided by this large population-based study on the long-term effects of COVID-19 on the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes will be extremely valuable to clinicians managing the millions of people who have been infected. It is clear that special surveillance is needed by the least the first three months,” said co-author Ajay Shah.

The study’s lead author, Emma Rezel-Potts emphasizes that while it is in the first four weeks that patients with COVID-19 appear to be most vulnerable, the risk of diabetes mellitus remains increased for at least 12 weeks. “Clinical and public health interventions focused on reducing the risk of diabetes among those recovering from COVID-19 in the long term can be very beneficial,” she argues.

In the opinion of Amitava Banerjee, professor of clinical data sciences and cardiology at University College London, the study is notable for being large and well-conducted, as well as supporting the findings of other research in the UK and other countries that show an increase in risk of cardiovascular disease and post-covid diabetes.

“These new analyzes suggest a slightly higher risk in the entire population in the first few weeks after infection, but a higher risk in certain people, such as those with preexisting heart disease or diabetes. The underlying mechanism of the increased risk is unclear, and more research is needed.” are needed,” said Banerjee, who was not involved in the study. According to him, this is an alert that COVID-19 cannot be ignored.

micron: reinforcement drops after 90 days

woman being vaccinated
(photo: David Ryder)

Although booster vaccines in adults produce high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the micron variant, these rates decline substantially within three months, according to an article published in the journal Cell Reports Medicine, funded by the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

As part of a clinical trial, the researchers administered booster vaccines to adults who had previously received prior immunization under Emergency Use Authorization. Some participants were given the same substance, while others were given a different one. The scientists then evaluated the immune responses over time.

In the new analysis, the researchers report that nearly all vaccine combinations evaluated generated high levels of neutralizing antibodies to the micron subline BA.1. However, rates were low in the group that received Ad26.COV2.S, manufactured by Jansen, as a primary and booster.

In addition, micron immune responses in all groups decreased substantially, with levels of neutralizing antibodies decreasing 2.4- to 5.3-fold three months after boosting. The sublines BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5 were 1.5 and 2.5 times less susceptible to neutralization, respectively, compared to BA.1, and 7.5 and 12.4 times less susceptible when compared to the ancestral strain (D614G). BA.5 is currently the dominant variant in several countries, including Brazil.

The authors note that the findings are consistent with reports showing decreased protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection during the micron wave in people who received a series of primary vaccines plus a booster dose. Furthermore, the immune response to substrains shows reduced susceptibility to these rapidly emerging subvariants. The data can be used to inform decisions about future vaccine schedule recommendations, the scientists noted.